Monday, April 18, 2016

Post harvest nutrition in Apple - Q&A.



The mineral nutrition of trees crops has a major influence on their shoot growth and yield. Nutrition is even more important in apple and pear trees because good nutrient status improves the storage behavior (or fermentation if being made into cider) of our fruit. 



Q&A with James Hook – DJ’s Growers.



Q: What do you think of applying phosphorous (P) after fruit has been picked as a way of adding P to the orchard?

James Hook’s A: I am a newby to the apple industry but my understanding is phosphorus (particularly if nitrogen and potassium are found in high levels) is very important for apple fruit maturation because P is involved in several biochemical processes that take place after picking. There are significant relationships between soluble solids, between acidity and phosphorus which may increase the synthesis of nucleic acids and improve energy supply through adenosine phosphates (Kaack and Pedersen, 2014).

If fruit is deficient in phosphorous, but high in nitrogen and potassium then it reduces the storage performance of that fruit. Also phosphorous levels in combination with calcium are linked with skin firmness. Firmness is important in all horticultural crops that are transported and stored.



So, yes replenishing phosphorous after picking is important especially in orchards where fruit is not performing well in storage. 

Q: How would you approach an orchard that has low phosphorous and problems with skin firmness and storage.




I have a preference for using organic methods to improve the soil of orchards rather than using phosphate or foliar sprays or similar. I was cynical when I started out testing soil but I have changed 180 degrees over the last ten years. It just makes sense to me to build a healthy soil that provides the nutrients a tree needs rather than continually import nutrient in the form of mineral fertilisers. Needing to constantly add fertiliser to ‘prop’ up trees is a short term solution. Spraying harvested fruit is also an expensive and temporary solution. I would advocate getting the soil right and then monitoring nutrient uptake into the tree.

I would look at adding guano to the soil, steadily over a few seasons, as a long term approach to nutrient correction. I am prepared to recommend guano on the record because it supplies a natural source of phosphorous with the added benefit of being a high source of calcium.




Guano: a natural source of  phosphorous and calcium.

Guano is a granular product made from sea bird droppings, 2- 4mm in size, so it can be spread using the equipment farmers and contractors already have.  Guano offers a combination of soluble and slow-release phosphorous so it can be seasonally broadcast out to begin to boost soil levels. Guano’s phosphorous isn’t prone to lock up and becoming insoluble. As I mentioned it also contains calcium and has other good trace element levels as a bonus.


Q:  Is guano as effective as superphosphate or other phosphate fertilser stack up?



A: On Adelaide Hills soil types, clay loams and sandy loams, it is likely to be a more effective source of phosphorous because it has greater stability in our soil types.

The inherent problem with superphosphate fertilisers or MAP is that they are locked up in our soils. They are soluble phosphate concentrates which theoretically reduce transport costs in comparison to guano but their potential is not matched by their performance in my opinion. Phosphate is a triple negatively charged anion which means that it is strongly attracted to positively charged cations like calcium, iron and aluminium. The fact is that when P forms a bond with these other minerals it becomes insoluble and is no longer available to the plant. This “lock-up” can begin to occur within hours of application and is likely all tied up before spring begins.

Q: How does the price between conventional sources of P and Guano.

A: Guano is surprisingly good value for money per unit of Phosphourous. Guano is (0:14:0 and 26 calcium). I cross checked guano with the current price of single superphosphate (0:9:0) and triple superphosphate (0:23:0). Guano works out to be $62 a kilo of P while single super is $42.50 and triple super is $37.50 a kilo. 



While Guano does cost more per unit of P when you factor in its performance, stability and availability it is certainly a valid option.



James Hook is a director of DJ’s Growers and has a background in horticulture beginning with Wesfarmers Landmark in 2001 before founding DJ’s in 2007. Together with is wife he also runs the Lazy Ballerina cellar door located across the road from Kuitpo Forest.



Further  reading:




Kaack, K., & Pedersen, H. L. (2014). Effects Of Potassium, Phosphorus  And  Nitrogen  Fertilization  On  Endogenous  Ethylene And Quality Characteristics Of Apples (Malus Domestica L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37(7), 1148-1155.

Sunday, March 27, 2016

Soil Testing Information

Post Harvest Grapevines EL 45.
The time has come once again to accurately perform soil testing in grapevines, olives and almonds.

We have completed soil testing with some growers already, and have been undertaking extensive soil amendment work

It is recommended that soil tests are performed on existing vineyards every 2-3 years to accurately assess changes over time and to avoid running in to large deficiencies down the track.

Soil tests are particularly important where growers are using underground water sources that are high in sodium, or salts. If sodium levels are build up in your topsoil, 10-15cm, this will reduce crop health, quality and yield.

Salinity problems are caused from the accumulation of soluble salts in the root zone. These excess salts reduce plant growth and vigor by altering water uptake and causing toxicities.

Soil Test Options. 


Top Soil Test - Soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, boron, pH(water), pH(CaCl2), organic carbon, salinity, chloride, aluminium, exchangeable sodium %, and exchangeable sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

A soil test example of a soil with high sodium and salinity.
  
Sub Soil Test - pH(water), pH(CaCl2), salinity, chloride, boron, organic carbon, exchangeable sodium %, and exchangeable sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

Microbiological Soil Test - Numbers and types of micro-organisms in your soil.
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Contact DJ’s for information and costs per hectare for certified organic fertilizer, mineral fertilizer and gypsum. DJ’s also specialize in custom blending for specific soil types and issues.

For more information - djs@djsgrowers.com.au

Monday, March 14, 2016

Shoot Growth Post Harvest - Is this a problem?

The importance of the post-harvest period is largely determined by climate, variety, yield, and management prior to harvest. Vines will tolerate a season or two with limited post-harvest irrigation, but productivity will eventually be reduced if this continues over many seasons. In the same vain they are thought to tolerate excessive irrigation and fertiliser for one or two seasons before  the vine becomes unbalanced. 

Clearly in the picture below the rate of fertiliser and irrigation has been too high and the vines have re-shot.
Excessive shoot re-growth in Shiraz - 3/4/13.
With all organic options it is best to check with us and your certification body before use! 

For conventional vineyards DJ's also recommend using 'soft' fertiliser products instead of Urea which is straight Nitrogen. DJ's use techgrade MAP, NutriPHlow or a specialist fertiliser like KRISTALON which contain a combination of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium.

We recommend this because:
  • Like carbohydrates, grapevines require a supply of nutrients from stored reserves to support growth in early spring. Nitrogen in the roots and wood follows a similar pattern to carbohydrates and post-harvest applications will influence the nitrogen status of the vine in the following season.  
  • These products are highly soluble.
  • The role of other nutrient reserves is less well understood, but post-harvest uptake of phosphorus does appear to be important. To a lesser extent, magnesium, calcium and potassium uptake after harvest will also contribute to growth in the following spring. Little is known about the role of other nutrients carried over winter in grapevine tissues.
Further reading.

Mod1-PostHarvestCare